DivineYu conducts research on Reiki. If you are a research center, hospital or would like to take part in scientific research studies, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Scientific results measured after Reiki sessions: reduced pain, reduced fatigue, reduced inflammation, normalized blood pressure, normalized body temperature, normalized heart beat, normalized respiration rate, balanced parasympathetic nervous system, improved energy, improved relaxation, reduced anxiety and worry, reduced depression, improved mood, improved sleep, reduced loneliness, improved attitude, improved memory, eased surgery pressure, improved behaviour, improved self-confidence, improved sense of calm, reduced burn-out of nurses and doctors, reduced side effects of cancer therapies, improved quality of life, improved wellbeing and more. Reiki sessions demonstrated no negative, toxic side effect. This is in line with the natural therapy principles: “First Do No Harm” (primum non nocere), based on the Hippocratic Oath.
Ann L. Baldwin, PhD published a book in 2020 “Reiki in Clinical Practice: A science-based guide”, that distils the essence of the currently peer-reviewed published research to produce a clear outline of the effectiveness of Reiki in alleviating disease and imbalance in various body systems.
A Large-Scale Effectiveness Trial of Reiki for Physical and Psychological Health.
November 12, 2019: Natalie L. Dyer, PhD, Ann L. Baldwin, PhD, and William L. Rand
A total of 1411 Reiki sessions were conducted by 99 Reiki Masters giving sessions across the Unites States. Conclusion: Reiki acutely improved physical and psychological symptoms associated with many health conditions, including affect, pain, depression, anxiety, tiredness, drowsiness, nausea, shortness of breath, appetite, and overall well-being. Reiki can provide immediate relief for many health conditions and is used for this purpose inside and outside of the hospital setting. This multi-site real-world effectiveness trial was feasible to conduct and provided important preliminary data on the effectiveness of a single session of Reiki to improve physical and psychological symptoms. From 1989 to 2018, a total of 74 peer-reviewed research articles have been published on Reiki. Over 800 hospitals (15%) in the United States currently offer Reiki to patients. According to the latest information available, in a 2007 National Health Interview Survey, which included a comprehensive survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use by Americans, more than 1.2 million adults and 161,000 children had used energy healing such as Reiki in the previous year.
Scientific Research Studies:
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Integr Cancer Ther. 2013 Oct 7
Integrative Reiki for Cancer Patients: A Program Evaluation
Fleisher KA, Mackenzie ER, Frankel ES, Seluzicki C, Casarett D, Mao JJ.
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
OBJECTIVE: This mixed methods study sought to evaluate the outcomes of an integrative Reiki volunteer program in an academic medical oncology center setting.
METHOD. We used de-identified program evaluation data to perform both quantitative and qualitative analyses of participants’ experiences of Reiki sessions. The quantitative data were collected pre- and postsession using a modified version of the distress thermometer. The pre- and postsession data from the distress assessment were analyzed using a paired Student’s : test. The qualitative data were derived from written responses to open-ended questions asked after each Reiki session and were analyzed for key words and recurring themes.
RESULTS. Of the 213 pre-post surveys of first-time sessions in the evaluation period, we observed a more than 50% decrease in self-reported distress (from 3.80 to 1.55), anxiety (from 4.05 to 1.44), depression (from 2.54 to 1.10), pain (from 2.58 to 1.21), and fatigue (from 4.80 to 2.30) with : .001 for all. Using conservative estimates that treat missing data as not endorsing Reiki, we found 176 (82.6%) of participants liked the Reiki session, 176 (82.6%) found the Reiki session helpful, 157 (73.7%) plan to continue using Reiki, and 175 (82.2%) would recommend Reiki to others. Qualiative analyses found that individuals reported that Reiki induced relaxation and enhanced spiritual well-being.
Holist Nurs Pract. 2017 Mar/Apr
Effects of Reiki on Pain, Anxiety, and Blood Pressure in Patients Undergoing Knee Replacement: A Pilot Study.
Baldwin AL1, Vitale A, Brownell E, Kryak E, Rand W. Author information Abstract This blinded, controlled pilot study investigated the effects of Reiki on 46 patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. Of the 3 groups, Reiki, Sham Reiki, and Standard of Care, only the Reiki group showed significant reductions in pain, blood pressure, respiration rate, and state anxiety, which provides evidence for a full-scale clinical study.
J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017 Jan 1
Reiki Is Better Than Placebo and Has Broad Potential as a Complementary Health Therapy.
Based on 13 peer-reviewed studies published between 1998 and 2016 that met all of the selection criteria. Conclusion: “Reiki is a safe, gentle, and profoundly relaxing healing modality that can be practiced by anyone who has received an “attunement” from a Reiki master. This review has found reasonably strong evidence for Reiki being more effective than placebo, suggesting that Reiki attunement leads to a quantifiable increase in healing ability. Reiki is better than placebo in activating the parasympathetic nervous system, as measured by reduced heart rate, reduced blood pressure, and increased heart rate variability. For patients with chronic health conditions, Reiki has been found to be more effective than placebo for reducing pain, anxiety, and depression, and for improving self-esteem and quality of life. According to the neurovisceral integration model and the polyvagal theory, these effects are due to higher parasympathetic nervous system activity, mediated via the vagus nerve. This understanding suggests that Reiki has the potential to provide valuable support for a broad range of chronic health conditions.”
AM J HOSP PALLIAT CARE March 2013
Symptomatic Improvement Reported After Receiving Reiki at a Cancer Infusion Center
Dawn A. Marcus, MD1 Betsy Blazek-O’Neill, MD2 Jennifer L. Kopar, CAVS3
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Department of Integrated Medicine, West Penn Allegheny Health System, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Volunteer Services, West Penn Allegheny Health System, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Dawn A. Marcus, MD, Suite 400, Pain Medicine Centre Commons Building, 5750 Centre Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15206, USA.
To evaluate patient-perceived benefits from receiving Reiki at a cancer infusion center.
Methods: During a 6-month period, adults at a university hospital receiving Reiki through volunteer services were invited to complete a survey asking about perceived changes after Reiki. Changes in pain, mood, distress, sleep, and appetite were rated on a 5-point scale from no benefit to great benefit. Surveys were distributed after completing treatment and were returned in postage-paid envelops.
Results: A total of 145 surveys were completed (34.5% response rate), with 47 participants seen in the cancer infusion center and 98 in other areas of the hospital. Reiki was rated as a positive experience by 94% at the cancer center and 93% of others, with 92% at the cancer center and 86% of others interested in receiving additional Reiki sessions. Symptomatic improvement was similar for people at the cancer center and others, respectively, with much to great improvement for 89% and 86% for relaxation, 75% and 75% for anxiety/worry, 81% and 78% for improved mood, 43% and 35% for improved sleep, 45% and 49% for reduced pain, 38% and 43% for reduced isolation/loneliness, 75% and 63% for improved attitude, and 30% and 30% for improved appetite. Response was unaffected by previous exposure to Reiki, massage, or other touch therapy.
Conclusion: Reiki results in a broad range of symptomatic benefits, including improvements in common cancer-related symptoms.
Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2013 February 19
Reiki training for caregivers of hospitalized pediatric patients: a pilot program.
Kundu A, Dolan-Oves R, Dimmers MA, Towle CB, Doorenbos AZ.
Source Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital, WA, United States.
To explore the feasibility of a Reiki therapy-training program for the caregivers of pediatric medical or oncology inpatients, at a large pediatric hospital, a series of Reiki training classes were offered by a Reiki Master. At completion of the training, an interview was conducted to elicit participant’s feedback regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of the training program. Seventeen of the 18 families agreed to participate. Most families (65%) attended three Reiki training sessions, reporting that Reiki benefitted their child by improving their comfort (76%), providing relaxation (88%), and pain relief (41%). All caregivers identified becoming an active participant in their child’s care as a major gain from participation in the Reiki training. A hospital-based Reiki training program for caregivers of hospitalized pediatric patients is feasible and can positively impact patients and their families. More rigorous research regarding the benefits of Reiki in the pediatric population is needed.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol 14, 2013
Effect of Reiki on Symptom Management in Oncology
Melike Demir, Gulbeyaz Can, Enis Celek
School of Health, Namık Kemal University, Tekirdag, Nursing Faculty, Istanbul University, Reiki Gelişim, Istanbul, Turkey
Reiki is a form of energy therapy in which the therapist, with or without light touch, is believed to access universal energy sources that can strengthen the body’s ability to heal itself, reduce inflammation, and relieve pain and stress. There is currently no licensing for Reiki nor, given its apparent low risk, is there likely to be. Reiki appears to be generally safe, and serious adverse effects have not been reported. So in this article provides coverage of how to use Reiki in oncology services. Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24083770
Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2012 June 29
The effects of Reiki therapy on pain and anxiety in patients attending a day oncology and infusion services unit.
Birocco N, Guillame C, Storto S, Ritorto G, Catino C, Gir N, Balestra L, Tealdi G, Orecchia C, Vito GD, Giaretto L, Donadio M, Bertetto O, Schena M, Ciuffreda L.
Source SC Oncologia Medica, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Turin, Italy.
Reiki is a system of natural healing techniques administered by laying of hands and transferring energy from the Reiki practitioner to the recipient. We investigated the role of Reiki in the management of anxiety, pain and global wellness in cancer patients. Building on the results of a pilot project conducted between 2003 and 2005 by a volunteer association at our hospital, a wider, 3-year study was conducted at the same center. The volunteer Reiki practitioners received 2 years of theory and practical training. The study population was 118 patients (67 women and 51 men; mean age, 55 years) with cancer at any stage and receiving any kind of chemotherapy. Before each session, the nurses collected the patient’s personal data and clinical history. Pain and anxiety were evaluated according to a numeric rating scale by the Reiki practitioners. Each session lasted about 30 min; pain and anxiety scores were recorded using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), together with a description of the physical feelings the patients perceived during the session. All 118 patients received at least 1 Reiki treatment (total number, 238). In the subgroup of 22 patients who underwent the full cycle of 4 treatments, the mean VAS anxiety score decreased from 6.77 to 2.28 (P <.000001) and the mean VAS pain score from 4.4 to 2.32 (P = .091). Overall, the sessions were felt helpful in improving well-being, relaxation, pain relief, sleep quality and reducing anxiety. Offering Reiki therapy in hospitals could respond to patients’ physical and emotional needs.
Holist Nurs Pract. 2011 Sep-Oct 25
Reiki and its journey into a hospital setting.
Kryak E, Vitale A.
Source Department of Nursing Informatics, Abington Health, Pennsylvania 19001, USA.
There is a growing interest among health care providers, especially professional nurses to promote caring-healing approaches in patient care and self-care. Health care environments are places of human caring and holistic nurses are helping to lead the way that contemporary health care institutions must become holistic places of healing. The practice of Reiki as well as other practices can assist in the creation of this transformative process. Abington Memorial Hospital (AMH) in Abington, Pennsylvania is a Magnet-designated health care facility with an Integrative Medicine Services Department. AMH’s Integrative Medicine staff focuses on the integration of holistic practices, such as Reiki into traditional patient care. Reiki services at AMH were initiated about 10 years ago through the efforts of a Reiki practitioner/nurse and the vision that healing is facilitated through the nurturing of the mind, body, and spirit for healing and self-healing. AMHs-sustained Reiki program includes Reiki treatments and classes for patients, health care providers, and community members. This program has evolved to include a policy and annual competency for any Reiki-trained nurse and other employees to administer Reiki treatments at the bedside.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2011 Sep-Oct 19
The application of Reiki in nurses diagnosed with Burnout Syndrome has beneficial effects on concentration of salivary IgA and blood pressure.
Díaz-Rodríguez L, Arroyo-Morales M, Cantarero-Villanueva I, Férnandez-Lao C, Polley M, Fernández-de-las-Peñas C.
Source Departamento de Enfermería, Universidad de Granada, Spain.
This study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), α-amylase activity and blood pressure levels after the application of a Reiki session in nurses with Burnout Syndrome. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design was conducted to compare the immediate effects of Reiki versus control intervention (Hand-off sham intervention) in nurses with Burnout Syndrome. Sample was composed of eighteen nurses (aged 34-56 years) with burnout syndrome. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a Reiki treatment or a placebo (sham Reiki) treatment, according to the established order in two different days. The ANOVA showed a significant interaction time x intervention for diastolic blood pressure (F=4.92, P=0.04) and sIgA concentration (F=4.71, P=0.04). A Reiki session can produce an immediate and statistically significant improvement in sIgA concentration and diastolic blood pressure in nurses with Burnout Syndrome.
Biol Res Nurs. 2011 October 13
Immediate effects of reiki on heart rate variability, cortisol levels, and body temperature in health care professionals with burnout.
Díaz-Rodríguez L, Arroyo-Morales M, Fernández-de-las-Peñas C, García-Lafuente F, García-Royo C, Tomás-Rojas I.
Source Nursing, University of Granada, Avda.Madrid s/n, Granada, Spain.
Burnout is a work-related mental health impairment comprising three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Reiki aims to help replenish and rebalance the body’s energetic system, thus stimulating the healing process. The objective of this placebo-controlled, repeated measures, crossover, single-blind, randomized trial was to analyze the immediate effects of Reiki on heart rate variability (HRV), body temperature, and salivary flow rate and cortisol level in health care professionals with burnout syndrome (BS). Participants included 21 health care professionals with BS, who were asked to complete two visits to the laboratory with a 1-week interval between sessions. They were randomly assigned the order in which they would receive a Reiki session applied by an experienced therapist and a placebo treatment applied by a therapist with no knowledge of Reiki, who mimicked the Reiki treatment. Temperature, Holter ECG recordings (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval [SDNN], square root of mean squared differences of successive NN intervals [RMSSD], HRV index, low frequency component [LF], and high frequency component [HF]), salivary flow rate and cortisol levels were measured at baseline and postintervention by an assessor blinded to allocation group. SDNN and body temperature were significantly higher after the Reiki treatment than after the placebo. LF was significantly lower after the Reiki treatment. The decrease in the LF domain was associated with the increase in body temperature. These results suggest that Reiki has an effect on the parasympathetic nervous system when applied to health care professionals with BS.
Gastroenterol Nurs. 2010 Jan-Feb 3
Endoscopic procedure with a modified Reiki intervention: a pilot study.
Hulse RS, Stuart-Shor EM, Russo J.
Source University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA, USA.
This pilot study examined the use of Reiki prior to colonoscopy to reduce anxiety and minimize intraprocedure medications compared with usual care. A prospective, nonblinded, partially randomized patient preference design was employed using 21 subjects undergoing colonoscopy for the first time. Symptoms of anxiety and pain were assessed using a Likert-type scale. Between-group differences were assessed using chi-square analyses and analysis of variance. There were no differences between the control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 11) groups on age (mean = 58 years, SD = 8.5) and gender (53% women). The experimental group had higher anxiety (4.5 vs. 2.6, p = .03) and pain (0.8 vs. 0.2, p = .42) scores prior to colonoscopy. The Reiki intervention reduced mean heart rate (-9 beats/minute), systolic blood pressure (-10 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (-4 mmHg), and respirations (-3 breaths/minute). There were no between-group differences on intraprocedure medication use or postprocedure physiologic measures. Although the experimental group patients had more symptoms, they did not require additional pain medication during the procedure, suggesting that (1) anxious people may benefit from an adjunctive therapy; (2) anxiety and pain are decreased by Reiki therapy for patients undergoing colonoscopy, and (3) additional intraprocedure pain medication may not be needed for colonoscopy patients receiving Reiki therapy. This pilot study provided important insights in preparation for a rigorous, randomized, controlled clinical trial.
Brain Res Bull. 2010 Jan 15
A randomised controlled single-blind trial of the effects of Reiki and positive imagery on well-being and salivary cortisol.
Bowden D, Goddard L, Gruzelier J.
Source Psychology Department, Goldsmiths, University of London, ITC Building, New Cross, London SE14 6NW, United Kingdom.
The study investigated whether participants who received Reiki would show greater health and well-being benefits than a group who received no Reiki. A method of blinding participants to Reiki was also tested, where non-contact Reiki or No-Reiki with random assignment was given to 35 healthy psychology undergraduates whose attention was absorbed in one of three tasks involving self-hypnosis/relaxation. Participants experienced ten 20-min intervention sessions over a period of two and a half to 12 weeks. Reiki was directed by the experimenter who sat behind the participants as they were absorbed in the tasks. Self-report measures of illness symptoms, mood and sleep were assessed pre-post-intervention as was salivary cortisol. While the Reiki group had a tendency towards a reduction in illness symptoms, a substantive increase was seen in the No-Reiki. The Reiki group also had a near-significant comparative reduction in stress, although they also had significantly higher baseline illness symptoms and stress scores. The Reiki blinding was successful – the groups did not differ statistically in their beliefs regarding group membership. The results are suggestive that the Reiki buffered the substantive decline in health in the course of the academic year seen in the No-Reiki group.
Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2008 June 12
Reiki as a clinical intervention in oncology nursing practice.
Bossi LM, Ott MJ, DeCristofaro S.
Source: Children’s Hospital Boston, MA, USA.
Oncology nurses and their patients are frequently on the cutting edge of new therapies and interventions that support coping, health, and healing. Reiki is a practice that is requested with increasing frequency, is easy to learn, does not require expensive equipment, and in preliminary research, elicits a relaxation response and helps patients to feel more peaceful and experience less pain. Those who practice Reiki report that it supports them in self-care and a healthy lifestyle. This article will describe the process of Reiki, review current literature, present vignettes of patient responses to the intervention, and make recommendations for future study.
J Altern Complement Med. 2008 May 14
Reiki improves heart rate homeostasis in laboratory rats.
Baldwin AL, Wagers C, Schwartz GE.
Source Laboratory for the Advances in Consciousness and Health, Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0068, USA.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether application of Reiki to noise-stressed rats can reduce their heart rates (HRs) and blood pressures.
RATIONALE: In a previous study, we showed that exposure of rats to 90 dB white noise for 15 minutes caused their HRs and blood pressures to significantly increase. Reiki has been shown to significantly decrease HR and blood pressure in a small group of healthy human subjects. However, use of humans in such studies has the disadvantage that experimental interpretations are encumbered by the variable of belief or skepticism regarding Reiki. For that reason, noise-stressed rats were used as an animal model to test the efficacy of Reiki in reducing elevated HR and blood pressure. DESIGN: Three unrestrained, male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with radiotelemetric transducers were exposed daily for 8 days to a 15-minute white noise regimen (90 dB). For the last 5 days, the rats received 15 minutes of Reiki immediately before the noise and during the noise period. The experiment was repeated on the same animals but using sham Reiki.
SETTING/LOCATION: The animals were housed in a quiet room in University of Arizona Animal Facility.
OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean HRs and blood pressure were determined before Reiki/sham Reiki, during Reiki/sham Reiki, and during the noise in each case.
RESULTS: Reiki, but not sham Reiki, significantly reduced HR compared to initial values. With Reiki, there was a high correlation between change in HR and initial HR, suggesting a homeostatic effect. Reiki, but not sham Reiki, significantly reduced the rise in HR produced by exposure of the rats to loud noise. Neither Reiki nor sham Reiki significantly affected blood pressure.
CONCLUSION: Reiki is effective in modulating HR in stressed and unstressed rats, supporting its use as a stress-reducer in humans.
Integr Cancer Ther. 2007 March 6
Pilot crossover trial of Reiki versus rest for treating cancer-related fatigue.
Tsang KL, Carlson LE, Olson K.
Source Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Fatigue is an extremely common side effect experienced during cancer treatment and recovery. Limited research has investigated strategies stemming from complementary and alternative medicine to reduce cancer-related fatigue. This research examined the effects of Reiki, a type of energy touch therapy, on fatigue, pain, anxiety, and overall quality of life. This study was a counterbalanced crossover trial of 2 conditions: (1) in the Reiki condition, participants received Reiki for 5 consecutive daily sessions, followed by a 1-week washout monitoring period of no treatments, then 2 additional Reiki sessions, and finally 2 weeks of no treatments, and (2) in the rest condition, participants rested for approximately 1 hour each day for 5 consecutive days, followed by a 1-week washout monitoring period of no scheduled resting and an additional week of no treatments. In both conditions, participants completed questionnaires investigating cancer-related fatigue (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Fatigue subscale [FACT-F]) and overall quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, General Version [FACT-G]) before and after all Reiki or resting sessions. They also completed a visual analog scale (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS]) assessing daily tiredness, pain, and anxiety before and after each session of Reiki or rest. Sixteen patients (13 women) participated in the trial: 8 were randomized to each order of conditions (Reiki then rest; rest then Reiki). They were screened for fatigue on the ESAS tiredness item, and those scoring greater than 3 on the 0 to 10 scale were eligible for the study. They were diagnosed with a variety of cancers, most commonly colorectal (62.5%) cancer, and had a median age of 59 years. Fatigue on the FACT-F decreased within the Reiki condition (P=.05) over the course of all 7 treatments. In addition, participants in the Reiki condition experienced significant improvements in quality of life (FACT-G) compared to those in the resting condition (P <.05). On daily assessments (ESAS) in the Reiki condition, presession 1 versus postsession 5 scores indicated significant decreases in tiredness (P .001), pain (P .005), and anxety (P.01), which were no seen in the resting condition. Future research should further investigate the impact of Reiki using more highly controlled designs that include a sham Reiki condition and larger sample sizes.
Cancer Prev Control. 1997 June 1
Using Reiki to manage pain: a preliminary report.
Olson K, Hanson J.
Source Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alta.
The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of Reiki as an adjuvant to opioid therapy in the management of pain. Since no studies in this area could be found, a pilot study was carried out involving 20 volunteers experiencing pain at 55 sites for a variety of reasons, including cancer. All Reiki treatments were provided by a certified second-degree Reiki therapist. Pain was measured using both a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a Likert scale immediately before and after the Reiki treatment. Both instruments showed a highly significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in pain following the Reiki treatment.
Using Reiki to decrease memory and behavior problems in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease.
Crawford SE, Leaver VW, Mahoney SD. Source Passamaquoddy Tribe at Pleasant Point, Perry, ME, USA.
OBJECTIVES: This empirical study explored the efficacy of using Reiki treatment to improve memory and behavior deficiencies in patients with mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer’s disease. Reiki is an ancient hands-on healing technique reputedly developed in Tibet 2500 years ago.
DESIGN: This study was a quasi-experimental study comparing pre- and post-test scores of the Annotated Mini-Mental State Examination (AMMSE) and Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (RMBPC) after four weekly treatments of Reiki to a control group.
SETTINGS/LOCATION: The participants were treated at a facility provided by the Pleasant Point Health Center on the Passamaquoddy Indian Reservation.
SUBJECTS: The sample included 24 participants scoring between 20 and 24 on the AMMSE. Demographic characteristics of the sample included an age range from 60 to 80, with 67% female, 46% American Indian, and the remainder white.
INTERVENTIONS: Twelve participants were exposed to 4 weeks of weekly treatments of Reiki from two Reiki Master-level practitioners; 12 participants served as controls and received no treatment.
OUTCOME MEASURES: The two groups were compared on pre- and post-treatment scores on the AMMSE and the Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (RMBPC).
RESULTS: Results indicated statistically significant increases in mental functioning (as demonstrated by improved scores of the AMMSE) and memory and behavior problems (as measured by the RMBPC) after Reiki treatment. This research adds to a very sparse database from empirical studies on Reiki results.
CONCLUSION: The results indicate that Reiki treatments show promise for improving certain behavior and memory problems in patients with mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer’s disease. Caregivers can administer Reiki at little or no cost, resulting in significant societal value by potentially reducing the needs for medication and hospitalization.
J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Jan-Feb 12
Personal interaction with a Reiki practitioner decreases noise-induced microvascular damage in an animal model.
Baldwin AL, Schwartz GE. Source Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724-5051, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Reiki, a process of transmission of healing energy, can significantly reduce microvascular leakage caused by exposure to excessive noise using an animal model.
RATIONALE: Reiki is beginning to be used in hospitals to accelerate recovery. Despite many anecdotes describing Reiki’s success, few scientific studies are reported and none of those use animals. Animal models have the advantage over human subjects in that they provide well-controlled, easily interpretable experiments. The use of noise is relevant to hospital patients because of the excessive ambient noise in hospitals in the United Kingdom and United States. Loud noise can lead to several nonauditory disorders in humans and animals that impair recovery. In the rat, stress from noise damages the mesenteric microvasculature, leading to leakage of plasma into the surrounding tissue.
DESIGN: One group of four rats simultaneously received daily noise and Reiki, while two other groups received “sham” Reiki or noise alone. A fourth group did not receive noise or additional treatment. The experiment was performed three times to test for reproducibility.
OUTCOME MEASURES: Average number and area of microvascular leaks to fluorescent albumin per unit length of venule.
RESULTS: In all three experiments, Reiki significantly reduced the outcome measures compared to the other noise groups (sham Reiki and noise alone) (p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Application of Reiki significantly reduces noise-induced microvascular leakage in an animal model. Whether or not these effects are caused by Reiki itself, or the relaxing effect of the Reiki practitioner, this procedure could be useful for minimizing effects of environmental stress on research animals and hospital patients.
Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2013 Feb
Reiki training for caregivers of hospitalized pediatric patients: a pilot program.
Kundu A, Dolan-Oves R, Dimmers MA, Towle CB, Doorenbos AZ.
Abstract To explore the feasibility of a Reiki therapy-training program for the caregivers of pediatric medical or oncology inpatients, at a large pediatric hospital, a series of Reiki training classes were offered by a Reiki Master. At completion of the training, an interview was conducted to elicit participant’s feedback regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of the training program. Seventeen of the 18 families agreed to participate. Most families (65%) attended three Reiki training sessions, reporting that Reiki benefitted their child by improving their comfort (76%), providing relaxation (88%), and pain relief (41%). All caregivers identified becoming an active participant in their child’s care as a major gain from participation in the Reiki training. A hospital-based Reiki training program for caregivers of hospitalized pediatric patients is feasible and can positively impact patients and their families. More rigorous research regarding the benefits of Reiki in the pediatric population is needed.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2016 Nov
Massage and Reiki used to reduce stress and anxiety: Randomized Clinical Trial.
Kurebayashi LF, Turrini RN, Souza TP, Takiguchi RS, Kuba G, Nagumo MT.
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the effectiveness of massage and reiki in the reduction of stress and anxiety in clients at the Institute for Integrated and Oriental Therapy in Sao Paulo (Brazil).
METHOD: clinical tests randomly done in parallel with an initial sample of 122 people divided into three groups: Massage + Rest (G1), Massage + Reiki (G2) and a Control group without intervention (G3). The Stress Systems list and the Trace State Anxiety Inventory were used to evaluate the groups at the start and after 8 sessions (1 month), during 2015.
RESULTS: there were statistical differences (p = 0.000) according to the ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) for the stress amongst the groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.014) with a 33% reductions and a Cohen of 0.78. In relation to anxiety-state, there was a reduction in the intervention groups compared with the control group (p < 0.01) with a 21% reduction in group 2 (Cohen of 1.18) and a 16% reduction for group 1 (Cohen of 1.14).
CONCLUSION: Massage + Reiki produced better results amongst the groups and the conclusion is for further studies to be done with the use of a placebo group to evaluate the impact of the technique separate from other techniques.
Holist Nurs Pract. 2016 Nov/Dec
Effects of Reiki on Pain and Vital Signs When Applied to the Incision Area of the Body After Cesarean Section Surgery: A Single-Blinded, Randomized, Double-Controlled Study.
Sagkal Midilli T, Ciray Gunduzoglu N.
This study was conducted to determine the effects of Reiki on pain and vital signs when applied for 15 minutes to the incision area of the body after cesarean section surgery. The study was single-blinded, randomized, and double-controlled (Reiki, sham Reiki, and control groups). Forty-five patients, equalized by age and number of births, were randomly assigned to the Reiki, sham Reiki, and control groups. The treatment, which was applied to the patients in these 3 groups, was applied for 15 minutes to the incision area of body in the first 24 and 48 hours after the operation within 4 to 8 hours of the application of standard analgesics. The study data were collected using a patient follow-up form and a visual analog scale. Mean visual analog scale measurement values were significantly different from each other according to groups and times (P < .05). A reduction in pain of 76.06% was determined in the Reiki group patients between day 1 pre-tx and after application on the second day (day 2 post-tx) measurements. Mean breathing rate and systolic blood pressure measurement values were significantly different from each other according to groups (P < .05). The Reiki group was observed to use fewer analgesics throughout the study and to need them after a longer time than the sham Reiki and control groups (P < .05). It was concluded that Reiki applied for 15 minutes to the incision area after a cesarean operation had the expected effects on pain and the need for the use of analgesics, but it had no effect on vital signs.
Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2016 Jun 1
The Effects of Yoga, Massage, and Reiki on Patient Well-Being at a Cancer Resource Center. Rosenbaum MS, Velde J.
BACKGROUND: Cancer resource centers offer patients a variety of therapeutic services. However, patients with cancer and cancer healthcare practitioners may not fully understand the specific objectives and benefits of each service. This research offers guidance to cancer healthcare practitioners on how they can best direct patients to partake in specific integrative therapies, depending on their expressed needs.
OBJECTIVES: This article investigates the effects of yoga, massage, and Reiki services administered in a cancer resource center on patients’ sense of personal well-being. The results show how program directors at a cancer resource center can customize therapies to meet the needs of patients’ well-being.
METHODS: The experimental design measured whether engaging in yoga, massage, or Reiki services affects the self-perceived well-being of 150 patients at a cancer resource center at two times.
FINDINGS: All three services helped decrease stress and anxiety, improve mood, and enhance cancer center patrons’ perceived overall health and quality of life in a similar manner. Reiki reduced the pain of patients with cancer to a greater extent than either massage or yoga.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2016 Sep-Oct; Epub 2016 Apr 20
Effects of Reiki With Music Compared to Music Only Among People Living With HIV.
Bremner MN, Blake BJ, Wagner VD, Pearcey SM.
Persons living with HIV (PLWH) often seek complementary treatments to improve their overall health and well-being. Reiki, an ancient healing practice, has been found to be effective in reducing symptoms of stress, anxiety, pain, and depression. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Reiki as a complementary treatment for PLWH. Using a two-group mixed-methods experimental design, 37 participants were randomized to either a 6-week Reiki with Music Group or a Music Only Group. Self-reported and physiologic measures were obtained at baseline, 6 weeks, and 10 weeks. Significant improvements in relief of pain and stress in those receiving RMG were found. At the 6-week assessment, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants. Qualitative findings indicated that Reiki and music therapy helped reduce stress, anxiety, and depression. Evidence-based data regarding the effectiveness of Reiki will help nurses help patients better manage HIV-related symptoms.
Int J Palliat Nurs. 2016 Apr 2;
An exploratory study of reiki experiences in women who have cancer.
Kirshbaum MN, Stead M, Bartys S.
Abstract AIMS: To explore the perceptions and experiences of reiki for women who have cancer and identify outcome measures for an intervention study.
METHODS: A cross-sectional qualitative study of 10 women who had received reiki after cancer treatment was conducted. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and coded using framework analysis.
RESULTS: Key themes identified were: limited understanding of reiki prior to receiving any reiki; release of emotional strain during reiki-feelings of a release of energy, a clearing of the mind from cancer, inner peace/relaxation, hope, a sense of being cared for; experience of physical sensations during reiki, such as pain relief and tingling; physical, emotional and cognitive improvements after reiki, such as improved sleep, a sense of calm and peace, reduced depression and improved self-confidence.
CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that reiki could be a beneficial tool in the self-management of quality of life issues for women who have cancer.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2017 May
Reiki Therapy for Symptom Management in Children Receiving Palliative Care: A Pilot Study. Thrane SE, Maurer SH, Ren D, Danford CA, Cohen SM.
BACKGROUND: Pain may be reported in one-half to three-fourths of children with cancer and other terminal conditions and anxiety in about one-third of them. Pharmacologic methods do not always give satisfactory symptom relief. Complementary therapies such as Reiki may help children manage symptoms.
OBJECTIVE: This pre-post mixed-methods single group pilot study examined feasibility, acceptability, and the outcomes of pain, anxiety, and relaxation using Reiki therapy with children receiving palliative care.
METHODS: A convenience sample of children ages 7 to 16 and their parents were recruited from a palliative care service. Two 24-minute Reiki sessions were completed at the children’s home. Paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were calculated to compare change from pre to post for outcome variables. Significance was set at P < .10. Cohen d effect sizes were calculated.
RESULTS: The final sample included 8 verbal and 8 nonverbal children, 16 mothers, and 1 nurse. All mean scores for outcome variables decreased from pre- to posttreatment for both sessions. Significant decreases for pain for treatment 1 in nonverbal children ( P = .063) and for respiratory rate for treatment 2 in verbal children ( P = .009). Cohen d effect sizes were medium to large for most outcome measures.
DISCUSSION: Decreased mean scores for outcome measures indicate that Reiki therapy did decrease pain, anxiety, heart, and respiratory rates, but small sample size deterred statistical significance. This preliminary work suggests that complementary methods of treatment such as Reiki may be beneficial to support traditional methods to manage pain and anxiety in children receiving palliative care.
J Integr Med. 2015 Sep
The use of self-Reiki for stress reduction and relaxation.
OBJECTIVE: More than one-third of college students reported the desire for stress reduction techniques and education. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 20-week structured self-Reiki program on stress reduction and relaxation in college students. METHODS: Students were recruited from Stockton University and sessions were conducted in the privacy of their residence. Twenty students completed the entire study consisting of 20 weeks of self-Reiki done twice weekly. Each participant completed a Reiki Baseline Credibility Scale, a Reiki Expectancy Scale, and a Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) after acceptance into the study. The PSS was completed every four weeks once the interventions were initiated. A global assessment questionnaire was completed at the end of the study. Logs summarizing the outcome of each session were submitted at the end of the study.
RESULTS: With the exception of three participants, participants believed that Reiki is a credible technique for reducing stress levels. Except for two participants, participants agreed that Reiki would be effective in reducing stress levels. All participants experienced stress within the month prior to completing the initial PSS. There was a significant reduction in stress levels from pre-study to post-study. There was a correlation between self-rating of improvement and final PSS scores. With one exception, stress levels at 20 weeks did not return to pre-study stress levels.
CONCLUSION: This study supports the hypothesis that the calming effect of Reiki may be achieved through the use of self-Reiki.
J Altern Complement Med. 2015 Aug
Reiki Reduces Burnout Among Community Mental Health Clinicians.
Rosada RM, Rubik B, Mainguy B, Plummer J, Mehl-Madrona L.
BACKGROUND: Clinicians working in community mental health clinics are at high risk for burnout. Burnout is a problem involving emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Reiki is a holistic biofield energy therapy beneficial for reducing stress. The purpose of this study was to determine if 30 minutes of healing touch could reduce burnout in community mental health clinicians.
METHODS: We utilized a crossover design to explore the efficacy of Reiki versus sham Reiki, a pseudo treatment designed to mimic true Reiki, as a means to reduce symptoms of burnout. Subjects were randomized to whether they started with Reiki or sham. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and the Measure Your Medical Outcome Profile Version 2 (MYMOP-2) were used as outcome measures. Multilevel modeling was used to represent the relations among variables.
RESULTS: Reiki was statistically significantly better than sham Reiki in reducing burnout among community mental health clinicians (p=0.011). Reiki was significant in reducing depersonalization (p<0.001), but only among single people. Reiki reduced the primary symptom on the MYMOP also only among single people (p=0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: The effects of Reiki were differentiated from sham Reiki. Reiki could be helpful in community mental health settings for the mental health of the practitioners.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015
Effects of Distant Reiki On Pain, Anxiety and Fatigue in Oncology Patients in Turkey: A Pilot Study.
Demir M, Can G, Kelam A, Aydıner A.
BACKGROUND: Fatigue, stress and pain are common symptoms among cancer patients, affecting the quality of life. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of distant Reiki on pain, anxiety and fatigue in oncology patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants in the control group received usual medical and nursing care during their stay. The intervention group received usual care plus five distant Reiki sessions, one each night for 30 min. A face to face interview was performed and patient personal and illness related characteristics were evaluated using the Patient Characteristics form. Pain, stress and fatigue were evaluated according to a numeric rating scale. RESULTS: The experimental group was predominantly composed of women (71.4%), married individuals (40%), and primary school graduates (40%). The control group was predominantly male (72.7%), married (60%), and primary school graduates (60%). The control group demonstrated greater levels of pain (p=0.002), stress (p=0.001) and fatigue (p=0.001). The Reiki group pain score (p<0.0001), stress score (p<0.001) and fatigue score were also significantly lower.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that Reiki may decreasepain, anxiety and fatigue in oncology patients.
J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2015 Jan
The effects of Reiki therapy and companionship on quality of life, mood, and symptom distress during chemotherapy.
Orsak G, Stevens AM, Brufsky A, Kajumba M, Dougall AL.
This pilot study examined the effects of Reiki therapy and companionship on improvements in quality of life, mood, and symptom distress during chemotherapy. Thirty-six breast cancer patients received usual care, Reiki, or a companion during chemotherapy. First, data were collected from patients receiving usual care. Second, patients were randomized to either receive Reiki or a companion during chemotherapy. Questionnaires assessing quality of life, mood, symptom distress, and Reiki acceptability were completed at baseline and chemotherapy sessions 1, 2, and 4. Reiki was rated relaxing with no side effects. Reiki and companion groups reported improvements in quality of life and mood that were greater than those seen in the usual care group. Interventions during chemotherapy, such as Reiki or companionship, are feasible, acceptable, and may reduce side effects.
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